Indian Energy Scenario
Article Written By: Amit Abhyankar
India’s Per Capita consumption of Energy is much lower than most nations-
Per Capita Energy Consumption (kgs of oil equivalent):
India: 515, Indonesia: 729, Egypt: 73, UK: 3982, Japan: 4099, USA: 7996
Did you know?
- Commercial sources of Energy (sources that cost i.e. coal, petroleum, electricity) are only 50% of total energy consumption in India. Means non-commercial sources like fuelwood, agricultural waste & animal dung constitute ½ of the total energy consumption in India.
- More than 60% of Indian households depend on traditional sources of Energy for cooking & heating needs.
- At current rate of consumption & production, coal reserves in India would last for about 130 years.
- At current rate of consumption & production, oil in India would last only for about 20 to 25 years.
- In commercial energy consumption, coal constitutes 29%, Oil & gas 54% & electricity 17%.
- We are using only 20% of total hydro-power potential. (Estimated annual energy potential from hydro-electric sources is around 90000 MW while we are currently producing only 18000 MW.
- Out of total electricity production, 65.8% comes from thermal power plants, 26.3% from hydro electricity & only 3.1% from nuclear power. Non-conventional, renewable energy sources like solar, wind energy constitute nearly 4.9%. (As per NIC site on Ministry of Power).
- Public sector produces 558 billion kwh of electricity while private sector only 58 billion kwh.
- Uranium reserves in country – 70,000 tonnes (equivalent to 120 billion tonnes of coal) and Thorium reserves – 3,60,000 tonnes (equivalent to 600 billion tonnes of coal) – which is about 5 times the coal reserves in country.
- 65% of total rural energy consumption is met from fuel woods- (180 million tonnes for households + 43 million tonnes for cottage industry, hotels etc). At this rate, in near future, fuelwood could be a greater constraint than availability of foodgrains. (The problem can be solved by government spending of around Rs. 1000 crore annually).
- If animal dung is not utilized for burning and is used as fertilizer, food production would increase considerably because 73 million tonnes of animal dung is burnt every year for energy purposes, which is far more than total fertilizer consumed in agriculture production in India.
- From 1951 to 2004, the coal production has increased 12 times, crude oil 110 times & electricity 65 times.
- In 1973, price for petroleum crude oil in global market was only $2 per barrel ($2.09 exactly).
- Did you know, India has not experienced a sudden shock in its balance of payments after steep increase in global oil prices thanks to large inward remittance of foreign currencies by Indians working abroad (Thank you NRIs!).
- Only 0.3% of world’s known oil reserves are in India.
- Transport sector accounts for 56% of total oil consumption in India.
- Millions of poor people in India spend up to 100 man-days every year in gathering fuelwood for cooking purposes.
- Demand for coal rises @ 4 to 5% per year, for petroleum products 6 to 7% per year & for electricity 9 to 10% per year.
- India is second largest exploiter of Wind Energy – 1000 MW (70% by private sector).
- There are 33 lakh bio-gas plants, 2 lakh solar cookers & 10000 street lighting systems using solar photo-voltaic technology.
- Out of total electricity consumption in India, 34% goes to Industry, 24% to agriculture, 21 % to domestic use, 12% to public lighting & 2% to railway traction. These figures do not include captive (i.e. private sector) power generation.
- Currently 5,87,560 villages in India have electricity. Still 1,12,400 villages haven’t seen what electricity is! (most of these are in Assam, Orissa, UP, MP & Rajasthan). And that does not mean that every house in those 5,87,560 electrified villages has electricity…even if 10% of the households get electricity, government declares the village electrified! (This is as per ‘new modified’ definition of ‘electrified villages’ formulated in 2003-04.)
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